How to convert from varbinary to char/varchar in mysql

ShardingSphere 4.x FAQ

1. How to debug when SQL can not be executed rightly in ShardingSphere?

Answer:
sql.show configuration is provided in Sharding-Proxy and post-1.5.0 version of Sharding-JDBC, enabling the context parsing, rewritten SQL and the routed data source printed to info log. sql.show configuration is off in default, and users can turn it on in configurations.

2. Why do some compiling errors appear?

Answer:
ShardingSphere uses lombok to enable minimal coding. For more details about using and installment, please refer to the official website of lombok.
Sharding-orchestration-reg module needs to execute mvn install command first, and generate gRPC java files according to protobuf files.

3. Why is xsd unable to be found when Spring Namespace is used?

Answer:
The use norm of Spring Namespace does not require to deploy xsd files to the official website. But considering some users' needs, we will deploy them to ShardingSphere's official website.
Actually, META-INF\spring.schemas in the jar package of sharding-jdbc-spring-namespace has been configured with the position of xsd files: META-INF\namespace\sharding.xsd and META-INF\namespace\master-slave.xsd, so you only need to make sure that the file is in the jar package.

4. How to solve Cloud not resolve placeholder … in string value … error?

Answer:
${...} or $->{...} can be used in inline expression identifiers, but the former one clashes with place holders in Spring property files, so $->{...} is recommended to be used in Spring as inline expression identifiers.

5. Why does float number appear in the return result of inline expression?

Answer:
The division result of Java integers is also integer, but in Groovy syntax of inline expression, the division result of integers is float number. To obtain integer division result, A/B needs to be modified as A.intdiv(B).

6. If sharding database is partial, should tables without sharding database & table be configured in sharding rules?

Answer:
Yes. ShardingSphere merges multiple data sources to a united logic data source. Therefore, for the part without sharding database or table, ShardingSphere can not decide which data source to route to without sharding rules. However, ShardingSphere has provided two options to simplify configurations.
Option 1: configure default-data-source. All the tables in default data sources need not to be configured in sharding rules. ShardingSphere will route the table to the default data source when it cannot find sharding data source.
Option 2: isolate data sources without sharding database & table from ShardingSphere; use multiple data sources to process sharding situations or non-sharding situations.

7. In addition to internal distributed primary key, does ShardingSphere support other native auto-increment keys?

Answer:
Yes. But there is restriction to the use of native auto-increment keys, which means they cannot be used as sharding keys at the same time.
Since ShardingSphere does not have the database table structure and native auto-increment key is not included in original SQL, it cannot parse that field to the sharding field. If the auto-increment key is not sharding key, it can be returned normally and is needless to be cared. But if the auto-increment key is also used as sharding key, ShardingSphere cannot parse its sharding value, which will make SQL routed to multiple tables and influence the rightness of the application.
The premise for returning native auto-increment key is that INSERT SQL is eventually routed to one table. Therefore, auto-increment key will return zero when INSERT SQL returns multiple tables.

8. When generic Long type SingleKeyTableShardingAlgorithm is used, why doesClassCastException: Integer can not cast to Long exception appear?

Answer:
You must make sure the field in database table consistent with that in sharding algorithms. For example, the field type in database is int(11) and the sharding type corresponds to genetic type is Integer, if you want to configure Long type, please make sure the field type in the database is bigint.

9. In SQLSever and PostgreSQL, why does the aggregation column without alias throw exception?

Answer:
SQLServer and PostgreSQL will rename aggregation columns acquired without alias, such as the following SQL:
sql SELECT SUM(num), SUM(num2) FROM tablexxx;
Columns acquired by SQLServer are empty string and (2); columns acquired by PostgreSQL are empty sum and sum(2). It will cause error because ShardingSphere is unable to find the corresponding column.
The right SQL should be written as:
sql SELECT SUM(num) AS sum_num, SUM(num2) AS sum_num2 FROM tablexxx;

10. Why does Oracle database throw “Order by value must implements Comparable” exception when using Timestamp Order By?

Answer:
There are two solutions for the above problem: 1. Configure JVM parameter “-oracle.jdbc.J2EE13Compliant=true” 2. Set System.getProperties().setProperty(“oracle.jdbc.J2EE13Compliant”, “true”) codes in the initialization of the project.
Reasons:
com.dangdang.ddframe.rdb.sharding.merger.orderby.OrderByValue#getOrderValues():
java private List> getOrderValues() throws SQLException { List> result = new ArrayList<>(orderByItems.size()); for (OrderItem each : orderByItems) { Object value = resultSet.getObject(each.getIndex()); Preconditions.checkState(null == value || value instanceof Comparable, "Order by value must implements Comparable"); result.add((Comparable) value); } return result; }
After using resultSet.getObject(int index), for TimeStamp oracle, the system will decide whether to return java.sql.TimeStamp or define oralce.sql.TIMESTAMP according to the property of oracle.jdbc.J2EE13Compliant. See oracle.jdbc.driver.TimestampAccessor#getObject(int var1) method in ojdbc codes for more detail:
```java Object getObject(int var1) throws SQLException { Object var2 = null; if(this.rowSpaceIndicator == null) { DatabaseError.throwSqlException(21); }
 if(this.rowSpaceIndicator[this.indicatorIndex + var1] != -1) { if(this.externalType != 0) { switch(this.externalType) { case 93: return this.getTimestamp(var1); default: DatabaseError.throwSqlException(4); return null; } } if(this.statement.connection.j2ee13Compliant) { var2 = this.getTimestamp(var1); } else { var2 = this.getTIMESTAMP(var1); } } return var2; } 
```

11. Why is the database sharding result not correct when using Proxool?

Answer:
When using Proxool to configure multiple data sources, each one of them should be configured with alias. It is because Proxool would check whether existing alias is included in the connection pool or not when acquiring connections, so without alias, each connection will be acquired from the same data source.
The followings are core codes from ProxoolDataSource getConnection method in Proxool:
java if(!ConnectionPoolManager.getInstance().isPoolExists(this.alias)) { this.registerPool(); }
For more alias usages, please refer to Proxool official website.

12. Why are the default distributed auto-augment key strategy provided by ShardingSphere not continuous and most of them end with even numbers?

Answer:
ShardingSphere uses snowflake algorithms as the default distributed auto-augment key strategy to make sure unrepeated and decentralized auto-augment sequence is generated under the distributed situations. Therefore, auto-augment keys can be incremental but not continuous.
But the last four numbers of snowflake algorithm are incremental value within one millisecond. Thus, if concurrency degree in one millisecond is not high, the last four numbers are likely to be zero, which explains why the rate of even end number is higher.
In 3.1.0 version, the problem of ending with even numbers has been totally solved, please refer to: https://github.com/sharding-sphere/sharding-sphere/issues/1617

13. In Windows environment,when cloning ShardingSphere source code through Git, why prompt filename too long and how to solve it?

Answer:
To ensure the readability of source code,the ShardingSphere Coding Specification requires that the naming of classes,methods and variables be literal and avoid abbreviations,which may result in Some source files have long names.
Since the Git version of Windows is compiled using msys,it uses the old version of Windows Api,limiting the file name to no more than 260 characters.
The solutions are as follows:
Open cmd.exe (you need to add git to environment variables) and execute the following command to allow git supporting log paths: git config --global core.longpaths true
If we use windows 10, also need enable win32 log paths in registry editor or group strategy(need reboot):
Create the registry key HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\FileSystem LongPathsEnabled (Type: REG_DWORD) in registry editor, and be set to 1. Or click "setting" button in system menu, print "Group Policy" to open a new window "Edit Group Policy", and then click 'Computer Configuration' > 'Administrative Templates' > 'System' > 'Filesystem', and then turn on 'Enable Win32 long paths' option.
Reference material:
https://docs.microsoft.com/zh-cn/windows/desktop/FileIO/naming-a-file https://ourcodeworld.com/articles/read/109/how-to-solve-filename-too-long-error-in-git-powershell-and-github-application-for-windows

14. In Windows environment, could not find or load main class org.apache.shardingshpere.shardingproxy.Bootstrap, how to solve it?

Answer:
Some decompression tools may truncate the file name when decompressing the Sharding-Proxy binary package, resulting in some classes not being found.
The solutions:
Open cmd.exe and execute the following command: tar zxvf apache-shardingsphere-${RELEASE.VERSION}-sharding-proxy-bin.tar.gz

15. How to solve Type is required error?

Answer:
In Apache ShardingSphere, many functionality implementation are uploaded through SPI, such as Distributed Primary Key. These functions load SPI implementation by configuring the type,so the type must be specified in the configuration file.

16. Why does my custom distributed primary key do not work after implementing ShardingKeyGenerator interface and configuring type property?

Answer:
Service Provider Interface (SPI) is a kind of API for the third party to implement or expand. Except implementing interface, you also need to create a corresponding file in META-INF/services to make the JVM load these SPI implementations.
More detail for SPI usage, please search by yourself.
Other ShardingSphere functionality implementation will take effect in the same way.

17. How to solve that DATA MASKING can't work with JPA?

Answer:
Because DDL for data masking has not yet finished, JPA Entity cannot meet the DDL and DML at the same time, when JPA that automatically generates DDL is used with data masking.
The solutions are as follows:
  1. Create JPA Entity with logicColumn which needs to encrypt.
  2. Disable JPA auto-ddl, For example setting auto-ddl=none.
  3. Create table manually. Table structure should use cipherColumn,plainColumn and assistedQueryColumn to replace the logicColumn.

18. How to speed up the metadata loading when service starts up?

Answer:
  1. Update to 4.0.1 above, which helps speed up the process of loading table metadata from the default dataSource.
  2. Configure max.connections.size.per.query(Default value is 1) higher referring to connection pool you adopt(Version >= 3.0.0.M3).

19. How to allow range query with using inline sharding strategy(BETWEEN AND, >, <, >=, <=)?

Answer:
  1. Update to 4.0.1 above.
  2. Configureallow.range.query.with.inline.sharding to true (Default value is false).
  3. A tip here: then each range query will be broadcast to every sharding table.

20. Why there may be an error when configure both sharding-jdbc-spring-boot-starter and a spring-boot-starter of certain datasource pool(such as druid)?

Answer:
  1. Because the spring-boot-starter of certain datasource pool (such as druid) will configured before sharding-jdbc-spring-boot-starter and create a default datasource, then conflict occur when sharding-jdbc create datasources.
  2. A simple way to solve this issue is removing the the spring-boot-starter of certain datasource pool, sharding-jdbc create datasources with suitable pools.

21. How to add a new logic schema dynamically when use sharing-proxy?

Answer:
  1. Before version 4.1.0, sharing-proxy can't support adding a new logic schema dynamically, for example, when a proxy starting with two logic schemas, it always hold the two schemas and will be notified about the table/rule changed events in the two schemas.
  2. Since version 4.1.0, sharing-proxy support adding a new logic schema dynamically via sharding-ui or zookeeper, and it's a plan to support removing a exist logic schema dynamically in runtime.

22. How to use a suitable database tools connecting sharding-proxy?

Answer:
  1. Sharding-proxy could be considered as a mysql sever, so we recommend using mysql command line tool to connect to and operate it.
  2. If users would like use a third-party database tool, there may be some errors cause of the certain implementation/options. For example, we recommend Navicat with version 11.1.13(not 12.x), and turn on "introspect using jdbc metadata"(or it will get all real tables info from informations_schema) in idea or datagrip.
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boolean

Boolean data type

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search
In computer science, the Boolean data type is a data type that has one of two possible values (usually denoted true and false) which is intended to represent the two truth values of logic and Boolean algebra. It is named after George Boole, who first defined an algebraic system of logic in the mid 19th century. The Boolean data type is primarily associated with conditional) statements, which allow different actions by changing control flow depending on whether a programmer-specified Boolean condition evaluates to true or false. It is a special case of a more general logical data type (see probabilistic logic)—logic doesn't always need to be Boolean.

Contents


Generalities

In programming languages with a built-in Boolean data type, such as Pascal) and Java), the comparison operators such as > and ≠ are usually defined to return a Boolean value. Conditional and iterative commands may be defined to test Boolean-valued expressions.
Languages with no explicit Boolean data type, like C90 and Lisp), may still represent truth values by some other data type. Common Lisp uses an empty list for false, and any other value for true. The C programming language uses an integer) type, where relational expressions like i > j and logical expressions connected by && and || are defined to have value 1 if true and 0 if false, whereas the test parts of if , while , for , etc., treat any non-zero value as true.[1][2] Indeed, a Boolean variable may be regarded (and implemented) as a numerical variable with one binary digit (bit), which can store only two values. The implementation of Booleans in computers are most likely represented as a full word), rather than a bit; this is usually due to the ways computers transfer blocks of information.
Most programming languages, even those with no explicit Boolean type, have support for Boolean algebraic operations such as conjunction (AND , & , * ), disjunction (OR , | , + ), equivalence (EQV , = , == ), exclusive or/non-equivalence (XOR , NEQV , ^ , != ), and negation (NOT , ~ , ! ).
In some languages, like Ruby), Smalltalk, and Alice) the true and false values belong to separate classes), i.e., True and False , respectively, so there is no one Boolean type.
In SQL, which uses a three-valued logic for explicit comparisons because of its special treatment of Nulls), the Boolean data type (introduced in SQL:1999) is also defined to include more than two truth values, so that SQL Booleans can store all logical values resulting from the evaluation of predicates in SQL. A column of Boolean type can also be restricted to just TRUE and FALSE though.

ALGOL and the built-in boolean type

One of the earliest programming languages to provide an explicit boolean data type is ALGOL 60 (1960) with values true and false and logical operators denoted by symbols ' ∧ {\displaystyle \wedge } 📷' (and), ' ∨ {\displaystyle \vee } 📷' (or), ' ⊃ {\displaystyle \supset } 📷' (implies), ' ≡ {\displaystyle \equiv } 📷' (equivalence), and ' ¬ {\displaystyle \neg } 📷' (not). Due to input device and character set limits on many computers of the time, however, most compilers used alternative representations for many of the operators, such as AND or 'AND' .
This approach with boolean as a built-in (either primitive or otherwise predefined) data type was adopted by many later programming languages, such as Simula 67 (1967), ALGOL 68 (1970),[3] Pascal) (1970), Ada) (1980), Java) (1995), and C#) (2000), among others.

Fortran

The first version of FORTRAN (1957) and its successor FORTRAN II (1958) have no logical values or operations; even the conditional IF statement takes an arithmetic expression and branches to one of three locations according to its sign; see arithmetic IF. FORTRAN IV (1962), however, follows the ALGOL 60 example by providing a Boolean data type (LOGICAL ), truth literals (.TRUE. and .FALSE. ), Boolean-valued numeric comparison operators (.EQ. , .GT. , etc.), and logical operators (.NOT. , .AND. , .OR. ). In FORMAT statements, a specific format descriptor ('L ') is provided for the parsing or formatting of logical values.[4]

Lisp and Scheme

The language Lisp) (1958) never had a built-in Boolean data type. Instead, conditional constructs like cond assume that the logical value false is represented by the empty list () , which is defined to be the same as the special atom nil or NIL ; whereas any other s-expression is interpreted as true. For convenience, most modern dialects of Lisp predefine the atom t to have value t , so that t can be used as a mnemonic notation for true.
This approach (any value can be used as a Boolean value) was retained in most Lisp dialects (Common Lisp, Scheme), Emacs Lisp), and similar models were adopted by many scripting languages, even ones having a distinct Boolean type or Boolean values; although which values are interpreted as false and which are true vary from language to language. In Scheme, for example, the false value is an atom distinct from the empty list, so the latter is interpreted as true.

Pascal, Ada, and Haskell

The language Pascal) (1970) introduced the concept of programmer-defined enumerated types. A built-in Boolean data type was then provided as a predefined enumerated type with values FALSE and TRUE . By definition, all comparisons, logical operations, and conditional statements applied to and/or yielded Boolean values. Otherwise, the Boolean type had all the facilities which were available for enumerated types in general, such as ordering and use as indices. In contrast, converting between Boolean s and integers (or any other types) still required explicit tests or function calls, as in ALGOL 60. This approach (Boolean is an enumerated type) was adopted by most later languages which had enumerated types, such as Modula, Ada), and Haskell).

C, C++, Objective-C, AWK

Initial implementations of the language C) (1972) provided no Boolean type, and to this day Boolean values are commonly represented by integers (int s) in C programs. The comparison operators (> , == , etc.) are defined to return a signed integer (int ) result, either 0 (for false) or 1 (for true). Logical operators (&& , || , ! , etc.) and condition-testing statements (if , while ) assume that zero is false and all other values are true.
After enumerated types (enum s) were added to the American National Standards Institute version of C, ANSI C (1989), many C programmers got used to defining their own Boolean types as such, for readability reasons. However, enumerated types are equivalent to integers according to the language standards; so the effective identity between Booleans and integers is still valid for C programs.
Standard C) (since C99) provides a boolean type, called _Bool . By including the header stdbool.h , one can use the more intuitive name bool and the constants true and false . The language guarantees that any two true values will compare equal (which was impossible to achieve before the introduction of the type). Boolean values still behave as integers, can be stored in integer variables, and used anywhere integers would be valid, including in indexing, arithmetic, parsing, and formatting. This approach (Boolean values are just integers) has been retained in all later versions of C. Note, that this does not mean that any integer value can be stored in a boolean variable.
C++ has a separate Boolean data type bool , but with automatic conversions from scalar and pointer values that are very similar to those of C. This approach was adopted also by many later languages, especially by some scripting languages such as AWK.
Objective-C also has a separate Boolean data type BOOL , with possible values being YES or NO , equivalents of true and false respectively.[5] Also, in Objective-C compilers that support C99, C's _Bool type can be used, since Objective-C is a superset of C.

Perl and Lua

Perl has no boolean data type. Instead, any value can behave as boolean in boolean context (condition of if or while statement, argument of && or || , etc.). The number 0 , the strings "0" and "" , the empty list () , and the special value undef evaluate to false.[6] All else evaluates to true.
Lua) has a boolean data type, but non-boolean values can also behave as booleans. The non-value nil evaluates to false, whereas every other data type always evaluates to true, regardless of value.

Tcl

Tcl has no separate Boolean type. Like in C, the integers 0 (false) and 1 (true - in fact any nonzero integer) are used.[7]
Examples of coding:
set v 1 if { $v } { puts "V is 1 or true" }
The above will show "V is 1 or true" since the expression evaluates to '1'
set v "" if { $v } ....
The above will render an error as variable 'v' cannot be evaluated as '0' or '1'

Python, Ruby, and JavaScript

Python), from version 2.3 forward, has a bool type which is a subclass) of int , the standard integer type.[8] It has two possible values: True and False , which are special versions of 1 and 0 respectively and behave as such in arithmetic contexts. Also, a numeric value of zero (integer or fractional), the null value (None ), the empty string), and empty containers (i.e. lists), sets), etc.) are considered Boolean false; all other values are considered Boolean true by default.[9] Classes can define how their instances are treated in a Boolean context through the special method __nonzero__ (Python 2) or __bool__ (Python 3). For containers, __len__ (the special method for determining the length of containers) is used if the explicit Boolean conversion method is not defined.
In Ruby), in contrast, only nil (Ruby's null value) and a special false object are false, all else (including the integer 0 and empty arrays) is true.
In JavaScript, the empty string ("" ), null , undefined , NaN , +0, −0 and false [10] are sometimes called falsy (of which the complement) is truthy) to distinguish between strictly type-checked and coerced Booleans.[11] As opposed to Python, empty containers (arrays , Maps, Sets) are considered truthy. Languages such as PHP also use this approach.

Next Generation Shell

Next Generation Shell, has Bool type. It has two possible values: true and false . Bool is not interchangeable with Int and have to be converted explicitly if needed. When a Boolean value of an expression is needed (for example in if statement), Bool method is called. Bool method for built-in types is defined such that it returns false for a numeric value of zero, the null value, the empty string), empty containers (i.e. lists), sets), etc.), external processes that exited with non-zero exit code; for other values Bool returns true. Types for which Bool method is defined can be used in Boolean context. When evaluating an expression in Boolean context, If no appropriate Bool method is defined, an exception is thrown.

SQL

Main article: Null (SQL) § Comparisons with NULL and the three-valued logic (3VL)#Comparisonswith_NULL_and_the_three-valued_logic(3VL))
Booleans appear in SQL when a condition is needed, such as WHERE clause, in form of predicate which is produced by using operators such as comparison operators, IN operator, IS (NOT) NULL etc. However, apart from TRUE and FALSE, these operators can also yield a third state, called UNKNOWN, when comparison with NULL is made.
The treatment of boolean values differs between SQL systems.
For example, in Microsoft SQL Server, boolean value is not supported at all, neither as a standalone data type nor representable as an integer. It shows an error message "An expression of non-boolean type specified in a context where a condition is expected" if a column is directly used in the WHERE clause, e.g. SELECT a FROM t WHERE a , while statement such as SELECT column IS NOT NULL FROM t yields a syntax error. The BIT data type, which can only store integers 0 and 1 apart from NULL, is commonly used as a workaround to store Boolean values, but workarounds need to be used such as UPDATE t SET flag = IIF(col IS NOT NULL, 1, 0) WHERE flag = 0 to convert between the integer and boolean expression.
In PostgreSQL, there is a distinct BOOLEAN type as in the standard[12] which allows predicates to be stored directly into a BOOLEAN column, and allows using a BOOLEAN column directly as a predicate in WHERE clause.
In MySQL, BOOLEAN is treated as an alias as TINYINT(1)[13], TRUE is the same as integer 1 and FALSE is the same is integer 0.[14], and treats any non-zero integer as true when evaluating conditions.
The SQL92 standard introduced IS (NOT) TRUE, IS (NOT) FALSE, IS (NOT) UNKNOWN operators which evaluate a predicate, which predated the introduction of boolean type in SQL:1999
The SQL:1999 standard introduced a BOOLEAN data type as an optional feature (T031). When restricted by a NOT NULL constraint, a SQL BOOLEAN behaves like Booleans in other languages, which can store only TRUE and FALSE values. However, if it is nullable, which is the default like all other SQL data types, it can have the special null) value also. Although the SQL standard defines three literals) for the BOOLEAN type – TRUE, FALSE, and UNKNOWN – it also says that the NULL BOOLEAN and UNKNOWN "may be used interchangeably to mean exactly the same thing".[15][16] This has caused some controversy because the identification subjects UNKNOWN to the equality comparison rules for NULL. More precisely UNKNOWN = UNKNOWN is not TRUE but UNKNOWN/NULL.[17] As of 2012 few major SQL systems implement the T031 feature.[18] Firebird and PostgreSQL are notable exceptions, although PostgreSQL implements no UNKNOWN literal; NULL can be used instead.[19]

See also

Data typesUninterpreted
Numeric
Pointer)
Text
Composite
Other
Related topics

References


  1. "PostgreSQL: Documentation: 10: 8.6. Boolean Type". www.postgresql.org. Archived from the original on 9 March 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
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